International Politics Journal Archive


International Politics Vol. 65 No. 1155-1156/2014

Content

THE SERBIAN DIPLOMACY BEFORE AND AT THE BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR
Zoran Jerotijević
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):5-25
Abstract ▼
The beginning of the twentieth century was for the serbian people the entering into a period of difficult and uncertain struggle for liberation and unification. Wandering in the foreign policy, which had significantly weakened the international position of serbia after the Berlin Congress, turned its policy into a sensible and pragmatic one after the throne change in 1903. serbia started to build again close relations with Russia and france (Entente) and the other countries that would allow it to be neither economically (nor politically) exclusively related to hostile neighbors. The Balkan wars showed the serbian military power, but some of the major powers did everything to devalue its military successes and limit its strategic penetration towards the coast. The beginning of the Great War was marked by the attempts to bring serbia to its knees and to establish a connection between the Central Powers and Constantinople. The very cause for the war (the assassination in sarajevo) was aimed at justifying the aggression and as much as possible isolate serbia in the world. The beginning of the war and serbian victory intensified the diplomatic efforts both between ally countries and between the warring parties. serbia became an important subject of diplomatic activities and their participant.
CONTEMPORARY SIGNIFICANCE OF MACKINDER’S EAST EUROPE CONCEPT: THE CASE OF THE UKRAINIAN CRISIS
Vladimir Trapara
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):26-43
Abstract ▼
The subject of this article is to demonstrate the significance of Halford Mackinder’s geopolitical concept of East Europe for contemporary international relations testing it on the case of the Ukrainian crisis. The author claims that, if properly read and interpreted, classic geopolitical concepts can explain a great deal of contemporary international reality. Mackinder’s concept of East Europe as the first stop on the road to global hegemony has proved to be valid on multiple historical examples during the last two centuries and it is still reliable for explaining contemporary foreign policy of the Unites states. The Ukrainian crisis is the key event in Washington’s geopolitical expansion to the East, whose imminent goal is the reign over whole East Europe, while the long-term one is to eliminate Russia as an independent great power in Eurasian Heartland, after which the road towards the world hegemony would be open for the U.S.
NEW FOREIGN POLICY STRATEGY OF CHINA – BETWEEN PRAGMATISM AND CHALLENGES
Dr Sanja Arežina
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):44-75
Abstract ▼
China’s economic progress has had the effect of changing its foreign policy. Deng Xiaoping’s “be patient” policy, whose goal was to create a peaceful external environment so that the state could devote its energy to its internal development, to convince neighbors and key partners of China’s benevolent intentions and avoid confrontation with other great powers, has been replaced by a more assertive foreign policy after the global economic and financial crisis. In an attempt to legitimize its power the fifth generation of Chinese leaders has relied on nationalism to distract public attention from the stagnating GDP growth. A tougher approach towards its neighbors, lesser inclination towards compromise and responding with more pressure to external pressures points to the increased deviation from the “smile diplomacy” that China has implemented over the last few decades. Despite the economic benefits and cooperation interests, a constant increase in the Chinese military budget and overall Chinese aspirations causes distrust and fear among its neighboring countries. This inevitably leads to security dilemmas and a new arms race, where everyone will strive to position itself accordingly and to maneuver to strengthen its position and maximize its long-term interests.
INTEGRATION PROCESS IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Božidar Knežević, Senka Pavlović
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):76-97
Abstract ▼
Shortly after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the process of Eurasian integration began in new forms of cooperation between the newly independent states. over the years, a number of agreements on mutual cooperation have been signed focusing primarily on deepening and strengthening the economic ties of the Member states, particularly among the largest countries, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. The authors analyse the types and main characteristics of the modern Eurasian integration processes and their institutional structure. The paper presents the integration processes based on the international trade association, among which two inter-state integration structures stand out – the Eurasian Economic Community and the Eurasian Economic Union. The authors are of the opinion that these integration processes are examples of dynamic regional linking and are based on the already known models of economic union of countries. on the basis of the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Community signed in Astana, Kazakhstan, on 29th May 2014, the beginning of the Union activity was announced – 1st January 2015.
TOWARDS SUCCESSFUL INDEPENDENT MILITARY ACTING OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: DEVELOPMENT OF SATELLITE SUPPORT
Srđan Korać
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):98-117
Abstract ▼
The paper analyses whether and to what extent the prerequisites for successful implementation of the EU Common security and Defence Policy are being met in terms of logistical support for sustainable military missions in third countries, without relying on the NATO and/or the United states military infrastructure. The analysis make reference to the theoretical debates on the optimal model of the role of the EU as an international security actor as well as the vital importance of the intelligence for effective military presence in asymmetric conflicts in remote areas. The author examines the current capability of the EU for its own satellite imaging, reconnaissance, surveillance and collection of geospatial intelligence (GEOINT), and with regard to the performance of the real-time satellite communication system. The author concludes that the completed and ongoing EU military missions give ample evidence to support the assumption that with no long-term investment in the development of an European network of satellites and related ground infrastructure as well as improvements in the supranational intelligence, it is not likely that the EU will be able to both act as a global supplier of cooperative security and protect vital security interests.

Analize

REFERENDUMA AS A NEGATION OF DIRECT DEMOCRACY: EXPERIENCES OF SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO
Vladimir Džamić, Vladimir Pavićević
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):118-128
Abstract ▼
Referendum is one of the most important instruments of direct (immediate) democracy, which is generally accepted in all consolidated democratic states. on the eve of the break-up of former Yugoslavia referendums were used very intensively for everyday political purposes or as a form (illusion) of legitimisation of specific political decisions. In the article, the authors analyse referendum as an instrument of direct democracy in the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro. on the basis of the experiences from the two referendum processes in both states the authors will attempt to show that in these states referendum was not an instrument but a negation of direct democracy. To support this, the authors will analyse the legal and political aspects of carrying out the referendums as well as the consequences in the two states that resulted from them. The lack of mechanism of direct democracy in both states, which has remained up to date, is only one in a number of indicators which show that democracy in those states is non-consolidated, fragile and false.
EUROPEAN UNION ENERGY SECURITY SYSTEM: POSITIONING OF SERBIA
Dr Ana Jović-Lazić
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):129-149
Abstract ▼
Demand in energy is growing in the world and that is why the issue of energy security is becoming even more important for international relations. EU member states are not rich in energy resources, so their energy security depends on, first of all, safe, sustainable and continuous energy supply from abroad. It is connected with diversification of sources from which the EU supplies, security of transit and the integration of the EU energy market. In order to contribute to the European energy security, EU cooperation in this area seeks to expand to the neighboring countries, particularly to the countries of south-Eastern Europe. This fact as well as the commitment of Serbia to join the EU has a great impact on the position of our country in the system of the EU energy security. At the same time, one should have in mind that Serbia is particularly interested in the construction of the “south stream”, which will transport the Russian gas to Europe.
CONVENTION ON PREVENTION AND PUNISHMENT OF THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE FROM 1948 – SOME LEGAL ISSUES
Jelena Lopičić Jančić
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):150-162
Abstract ▼
Genocide is one of the most serious crimes, which has unfortunately continuously been committed from the ancient times until the present day to a greater or lesser extent. It is evident that in the last two centuries (XIX and XX century) the genocide was committed to a greater extend, although at that time there were made a number of international multilateral conventions signed and adopted by most modern countries, whose purpose was to prevent wars as well as rules that must be applied during the wars and armed conflicts. It is the fact that the League of Nations and the United Nations were unable to prevent the outbreak of many wars and armed conflicts, although war and armed conflicts were prohibited by the League of Nations and now by the United Nations Charter. After the horrors of the second World War, when there were committed unseen mass war crimes against civilians, prisoners of war, wounded, sick and shipwrecked, including crimes of physical extermination of certain group of people: Jews, Slavs and Gypsies the international community, and the United Nations especially, adopted in 1948 the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. The obligation of the parties who signed the Convention was to enact in their legislations the crime of genocide. In this article the author has discussed and critically commented the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crime of Genocide. It underlines that this Convention has an international, political and legal significance; despite some defects it has justified its existence and the best proof for that is that this Convention has been signed, ratified or adopted by 145 countries, which means most modern countries in the world.
A CORELATION BETWEEN ILLEGAL MIGRATIONS AND TERRORISTS
Mr Srđan Marković
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):163-177
Abstract ▼
Illegal migrations and terrorist actions with foreign elements (elements which come from abroad) is an enormous global problem of the contemporary world. It is a mass phenomenon by which almost all countries are affected in various ways and against which the international community fights hard but continuously. These two phenomena have in a special way become characteristic of the contemporary civilisation. In the scientific theory, in international law and in practice of the international community these two phenomena are considered and treated separately, although numerous researches point to the connection between them and their mutual connections. The basic aim of the research is to point out to the close connection between illegal migrations and terrorist actions worldwide and also to point out to the mistakes made so far in the international law treatment of illegal migrants (the way how international law treats illegal migrants) and their true role in provoking security problems and phenomena, especially their role in terrorist actions, which is not treated in an appropriate way. Countries in which these problems were created have usually been satisfied with the decisions to deport those who violate international public law to their countries or to the countries and territories they come from. It is characteristic that illegal migrations are exclusively by international public law, primarily from the point of view of protection of human rights and freedoms. on the other hand, terrorists and all that is connected with terrorism as a global security problem are treated by the international community exclusively by criminal law. In that way, very precious knowledge about how illegal migrants act in terrorist actions have been lost, but that could be very important in the prevention of the phenomenon. for that reason, it is necessary to examine thoroughly every segment, cause and effect of their participation in terrorist actions.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN INTERNATIONAL TREATIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
Dr Dragoljub Todić
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):178-188
Abstract ▼
The paper analyses the regulations of the most significant environmental legislation related to the cultural heritage. There have been especially emphasized international agreements in the environmental field in which Republic of serbia has a membership status and which are of importance for the protection of cultural heritage. The second part of the paper is based on the overview of the national legislation in the field of the environment that has provisions on the cultural heritage protection. In that light, it is possible to, in a relatively clear manner, identify parts of the regulations in the field of the environment that in various ways correspond to the certain aspects of the cultural heritage protection. The broader sense of the relevance of the regulations in the environmental field that is indirectly important for the protection of the cultural heritage is also pointed out. In the separate part of the paper, there has been given an overview of the most significant regulations in the field of cultural heritage. The analysis of the state of the national legislation is put in the context of the harmonization with the appropriate EU regulations in the environmental field and cultural heritage. The basic thesis which is proved in the paper is that the cultural heritage protection is a part of the regulation system of the environmental field in a broader sense, but that building stronger ties between instruments of the cultural heritage protection and environmental protection demands further improvements of the system of norms in the environmental and cultural heritage fields.
CIVIL PROTECTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
Aleksandar Jazić
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):189-200
Abstract ▼
The changes at the global level that occurred after the end of the Cold War resulted in the changes in many areas of society. one of them is civil protection and changes of its role. In the past, this area was more designed as part of defense in the armed conflict in which nuclear weapons would be used. At the beginning of the XXI century civil protection has been in the service of protection of the civilian population from the risks and disasters of different causes and character. The European Union, in order to strengthen civil protection, is trying to connect its members as much is possible into a single system. That is why the European Union is investing a lot of efforts to create a civil protection system that will be effective enough to prevent outbreaks or reduce the effects of a possible disaster in any Member state. In addition, attention is given to the countries that are not members of the European Union, because the consequences of disasters in neighboring countries can be transmitted and affect its members.

Prikaz

THE BALKANS AND THE MIDDLE EAST: ARE THEY MIRRORING EACH OTHER?
Jelica Gordanić
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):203-205
EVROPSKA UNIJA I ZAPADNI BALKAN
Ivan Racković
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):204-206
MAĐARI U VOJVODINI 1918–1947
Dragana Dabić
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):207-209

Dokumenti

OBRAĆANJE PREDSEDNIKA TOMOSLAVA NIKOLIĆA NA ZASEDANJU GENERALNE SKUPŠTINE UN
Tomislav Nikolić
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):211-216
IZLAGANJE MINISTRA IVICE DAČIĆA U CENTRU ZA EVROPSKU POLITIKU U BRISELU
Ivica Dačić
International Politics, 2014 65(1155-1156):217-218