International Politics Journal Archive


International Politics Vol. 70 No. 1176/2019

Content

THE CONCEPT OF UNAMBIGUOUS VICTORY BY JOHN DAVID LEWIS
Vladimir Trapara
International Politics, 2019 70(1176):5-21
Abstract ▼
In this paper, the author describes and critically analyzes the concept of unambiguous victory, developed by a Welsh politicologist John David Lewis in his book Nothing Less Than Victory. This concept\'s core lies in the emphasis on the significance of achieving victory as a war goal for the establishment of stable peace among former enemies, as well as in the observation that every conflict is based upon certain moral ideas. The path to an unambiguous victory goes through the identification of the enemy’s “center of gravity”, which is a source of the moral idea that leads it to start the war. To elaborate on the concept, Lewis performs several case studies, in which aggressive powers were unambiguously defeated by the adversaries who were convinced in the righteousness of their own war aims, and efficiently used force against the aggressor\'s “center of gravity”. The unambiguous victory concept is eclectic, for it combines the elements of all three big schools of thought about international relations – realist, liberal, and constructivist. However, liberal elements are merged with Lewis\'s bias towards Western liberal societies, which is a fundamental weakness of his concept, but not an obstacle to its scientific usefulness – if the bias in question is eliminated.
HETERONOMOUS INTERNATIONAL STATE (REJECTION OF ANARCHY)- NICHOLAS ONUF
Nevena Stanković
International Politics, 2019 70(1176):22-42
Abstract ▼
The concept of anarchy is one of the cardinal categories in International Relations Theories, classic and contemporary ones. This paper analyses the theoretical framework of one of the three most influential social constructivists- Nicholas Onuf. Describing the world affairs as anarchical, which is a presumption in the works of almost all scholars (both realistic and liberal), Onuf takes the presumption of anarchy to be mistaken. Onuf analyses and rejects the existence of anarchy in international state, most commonly regarded as “the absence of world government” or “rule by no one in particular”. Onuf is firm in the claim that there is no logically necessary connection between the absence of ultimate authority and the absence of rules or order. In order to represent and explain the true international state of affairs, which he suggests is unrecognized because of the terminological and conceptual confusions, Onuf implies that more adequate term is “heteronomy”. Scientific justification of this paper is obvious due to the fact that it is about a phenomenon that is not researched enough, especially in domestic literature, and because a better understanding of this phenomenon could potentially change the current world affairs for the better.
CYBORG SOLDIER AS THE BACKBONE OF AMERICAN DISCIPLINING WARS OF THE 21ST CENTURY
Srđan T. Korać
International Politics, 2019 70(1176):43-62
Abstract ▼
The paper examines recent and plausible advancements in military technology primarily regarding the soldiers’ ability to execute their combat missions as a prerequisite of the effective conduct of disciplining wars as a means of US control policy over planetary periphery in the early 21st century. The departing assumption is that, in addition to the material resources, military power is one of the basic preconditions for successful warfare because the victory in the battle is heavily conditioned by the combat effectiveness – the ability and willingness to confront the enemy in an organised way. The asymmetrical nature of US military interventions and their projecting into predominantly urban and civilian environments define a military strategic, operational and tactical framework in which advanced and sophisticated technologies cannot replace land operations. The author emphasises that the technological advancements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution necessarily involve the transformation of land forces, especially the infantry, since inflicting a decisive blow on enemy forces still requires a human presence on the battlefield. The analysis focuses on the application of the actual and plausible inventions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in the fields of biotechnology, neuroscience, electronics, informatics, and robotics aimed at enhancing the mental and physical abilities of a soldier. The author concludes that despite the possible ad hoc resistance from users and political decision-makers themselves, there are realistic expectations that hybridisation of the human body and technological enhancements may be created in the near future, but warns that the creation of cyborg soldiers with superhuman properties might pave just one more avenue for US hegemony to reaffirm itself over the rest of the world, particularly over the global periphery.
SECURITIZATION OF EU-RUSSIAN ENERGY RELATIONS: EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE
Nevena Šekarić
International Politics, 2019 70(1176):63-82
Abstract ▼
Considering the significance of the key energy sources and ways of their transportation, energy security is the subject of the analysis of many scientific papers and public policies. Energy security in the context of EU-Russian relations has gained importance in recent years. Hence, the main goal of this paper is to analyze the process of securitization of the European Union\'s energy dependence on Russian natural gas and the main implications of this process as well. Employing the concept of securitization of the Copenhagen School of Security Studies, or more precisely its criticisms, the paper highlights key elements of the securitization process in the case of energy relations between the EU and Russia. The central part of the paper focuses on content analysis of statements and messages of key securitizing actors in the European Union, but also on a wider sociopolitical context that gives \"legitimacy\" to such process, followed by concluding remarks.

Book review

THE ORIGINS OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY IN US STATECRAFT UNCOVERING A FORGOTTEN TRADITION
Vuk Lazić
International Politics, 2019 70(1176):83-84
ENERGY SECURITY IN EUROPE: DIVERGENT PERCEPTIONS AND POLICY CHALLENGES
Nevena Šekarić
International Politics, 2019 70(1176):85-87
JUGOSLOVENKO-SOVJETSKI ODNOSI
Bogdan Stojanović
International Politics, 2019 70(1176):88-89